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In following copyright law, we have included citations to articles that are excellent resources for clinical education. Many academic institutions will provide clinical instructors and site coordinators with access to full articles through their library. Contact the individual institution to inquire.



Pediatric CI Toolkit:

The Pediatric Clinical Instructor Toolkit is a resource for all clinical educators seeking teaching ideas and resources to enhance their ability to educate others. It is a living resource that allows you to share your teaching strategies and resources with others. Find out more at under Education, then CI Toolkit. Questions can be directed to

Related Literature

Clinical Education Terminology

  • Erickson M, Birkmeier M, Booth M, et al. Recommendations from the Common Terminology Panel of the American Council of Academic Physical Therapy. Physical Therapy. 2018;98(9):754-762.


Creating Meaningful Learning Experiences

  • Cole B, Wessel J. How clinical instructors Can Enhance the Learning Experience of Physical Therapy Students in an Introductory Clinical Placement. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2006:17.

  • McCallum CA, Reed R, Bachman S, Murray L. A systematic review of physical therapist clinical instructor demographics and key characteristics: Impact on student clinical education experiences. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2016;30(3):11-20.

  • Rindflesch A, Hoversten K, Patterson B, Thomas L, Dunfee H. Students' descriptions of factors contributing to a meaningful clinical experience in entry-level physical therapist professional education. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation. 2013;44(3):265-274.

  • Rindflesch AB, Dunfee HD, Plack MM. Teaching and learning in the clinical setting: Striving for excellence in clinical practice. In: Plack MM, Driscoll M, eds. Teaching and learning in physical therapy: From classroom to clinic. 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK, Inc.; 2017:357-392.


Student Performance

  • Gilliland S, Wainwright SF. Perspectives and practice: Physical therapist students' clinical reasoning. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2020;34(2):150-159.

  • Jette DU, Bertoni A, Coots R, Johnson H, McLaughlin C, Weisbach C. Clinical instructors' perceptions of behaviors that comprise entry-level clinical performance in physical therapist students: a qualitative study. Physical Therapy 2007;87(7):833-843.

  • Silberman N, LaFay V, Hansen RL, Fay P. Physical therapist student difficulty in clinical education settings: Incidence and outcomes. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2018;32:175 182.

  • Wolff-Burke M. Clinical instructors' descriptions of physical therapist student professional behaviors. Journal of Physical Therapy Education. 2005;19(1):67-76.

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